Coffee trees are rather difficult for classification due to their wide variety. It may be 10-meter giants and very small dwarf shrubs. However, it is accepted to distinguish 4 types of coffee beans:
- Arabica (Coffea Arabica) or Arabian Coffee;
- Robusta (Coffea Canephora) or Congolese coffee;
- Liberica (Coffea Liberica);
- Coffea Dewevrei or high coffee.
Arabica (70% of the world market) and Robusta (30% of the world market) are produced worldwide. The remaining 2 subtypes, similar in taste to Robusta, are far from being so tasteful. Liberica finds its application only as a mixture in order to improve the strength of coffee. But Dewevrei is of no economic importance at all.
Thus, what the manufacturers write on the label is a type of plant, but by no means a sort of coffee. The exception may be only the elite varieties of coffee.
There are a great many sorts of coffee, more than 2 thousand. But coffee is extremely reluctant to selection. Therefore, even if it is possible to select several sorts of coffee and get a good harvest, its taste qualities often suffer.
The sort is extremely rarely indicated on the package since in most cases coffee blends are used, which allows you to play with the taste and aroma of coffee. For example, Tea and Coffee shop in Ottawa prepares a coffee with a bright taste and aroma.
Comparative characteristics of the main types of coffee are presented in the table below:
|Native Country||Ethiopia||Subsaharan Africa|
|Tree Hight||3-8 meters||up to 13 meters|
|Beans||convexo-plane, extended, facing flat sides of each other, lateral groove is clearly specified||small, round-shape, have 2 small sports both side from a groove|
|Average Elevation (above the sea)||600-2500 meters||200-900 meters|
|Appropriate Temperature||+15 – +24 ОС||+24 – +30 ОС|
|Appropriate Drains Rate||1500-2000 mm||over 3000 mm|
|Resistance to diseases, blasts, frosts||Not resistance||Resistant|
|Aroma||delicate, sour||loaded with an aroma, brutal|
|Beans Content||aromatic oils (18%); coffein (1-1,5%).||aromatic oils (8%), coffein (3%)|
|Coffee Aroma||sweet, a little sour, delicate, менее tannic||much more strong, tannic, brutal|
|Cost of Production||High||Low|
|Usage||Monosort and blends||As blends for instant coffee|
Thus, lovers of a strong, rich, bitter taste of coffee prefer Robusta. Those who appreciate the delicate aroma of coffee and a pleasant taste should give preference to Arabica.
How does the taste of coffee depend on the country of origin and the sort?
Coffee taste depends on the soil composition, climatic conditions and height above the sea. The taste changes considering its organoleptic characteristics in accordance with growing conditions. What is important to know when choosing a country of manufacture. After all, the same type and even coffee sort can significantly change its taste characteristics depending on the amount of precipitation, sunny days, and the composition of the soil. In addition, today the creation of coffee blends is very common, the taste of which can be tuned to achieve the desired taste.
What sorts of coffee do gourmets prefer?
Colombia. This country, being a giant of the coffee business and supplying 15% of the world coffee volumes, produces high-quality Arabica acknowledged as the best in the world. The main coffee sort exported is Kolambia. Various qualities of coffee are produced in this country: supremo, extra and excelso.
- Supremo – the best sort, for the cultivation of which the latest technology is used. It has a fairly rich taste, silky aroma. It is rather difficult to find this coffee in an ordinary shop.
- Extra is slightly inferior in terms of quality, but, nevertheless, also relates to a high class. The size of coffee beans is slightly smaller than that of supremo. The size of beans is one of the determining factors when sorting. The taste of the coffee is very strong.
- Exelso is a mixture of supremo and extra, which gives this class of coffee a strength and wine aftertaste.
Guatemala. This country prides also the production of high-quality coffee, recognized as one of the best in the world, as it grows in mountainous areas, where, compared to the lowland, coffee have a more intense, tart flavor, depending, on the climatic conditions. Thus, the taste of the most well-known sort – Antigua volcanic is distinguished by a complex, strong taste with bitterness, strength and an exquisite aroma with notes of smoke.
Costa Rica. Coffee has a classic taste and a good reputation due to the fact that it has everything you need good coffee. Coffee beans are grown on the volcanic soils of this country and contain little caffeine. Coffee is soft, mild, and, at the same time, with a rich walnut flavor. The most famous sots are Costa Rica (CostaRica), Margarita (Margarita), Cashi.
Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico coffee brand is one of the best among American. The taste is very pleasant.
Tanzania. The variety of high-mountain coffee Tanzanian Southern Peaberry produced here deserves special attention since its taste combines shades of almond, apricot, brandy, which, when cooled, turn into jasmine. Such taste will not be forgotten. Moshi and Kilimanjaro sorts are quite good.
Jamaica. Excellent coffee, which is on the list of the world’s best sorts, is grown in Jamaica. Remember the Blue Mountain coffee that James Bond loved so much? So, this very expensive kind of coffee, which has a classic aroma, is produced in this country. Special refinement gives it the aroma of rum. The fact is that transportation of coffee beans occurs in barrels. After that, it is transferred to coffee.
Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Mokha, grown for centuries in the mountains of Yemen in the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula, is one of the best coffees in the world. Characteristic taste is chocolate and good wine. However, the appearance of coffee beans can stop the purchase, if you do not know about the amazing taste properties of this sort of coffee. They are quite small, vary in shape, and are broken. Due to the small production, such coffee is almost not exported. The main export sorts are Matari, Sharki, Sanani.
Zambia. This country produces the best coffee that Africa can offer – Zambia AA Lupili. The drink made from coffee beans of this sort has a taste of bitter orange, caramel, herbal savannah. Unfortunately, this type of coffee is extremely sensitive to weather conditions, so it can be very difficult to find it on store shelves. Taking care of its reputation, this country does not supply products of poor quality.
Zimbabwe. The pride of this country is Zimbabwe AA Salimba. The drink turns out very fragrant, fruity taste with light sourness. Particular refinement gives him a little peppercorn. The disadvantages include only small volumes of production and the complexity of transportation, the quality of which also determines the final taste of the product.
Kenya. Despite the fact that coffee in Kenya began to grow not so long ago, the sorts produced in the territory of this country are distinguished by an incredible aroma, strong, a rich, deep, bread flavor. The most popular sorts are Kenya AA Ruiruir and Kenya AB Ruiruir. The letter designation AA and AB means differences in the size of coffee beans: AA is an elongated, identical in shape, coffee beans, AB look like peas.